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英语语言学练习题答案 I. Define the following linguistic terms. 1. endocentric construction Endocentric c

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 英语语言学练习题答案jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

I. Define the following linguistic terms. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

1. endocentric construction jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

    Endocentric construction is one whose distribution is functionally equivalent to that of one or more of its constituents, i.e. a word or a group of words, which serves as a definable Centre or Head. In the phrase two pretty girls, girls is the Centre or Head of this phrase or word group. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

  2. morpheme jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

    Morpheme is the smallest unit of language in terms of relationship between expression and content, a unit that cannot be divided into further smaller units without destroying or drastically altering the meaning, whether it is lexical or grammatical. For example, the word tourists contains three morpheme, i.e. tour, -ist (meaning “person who does something”), and –s (indicating plural). jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

  3. Phonetics jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

    Phonetics is the study of how speech sounds are produced, transmitted, and perceived. It can be divided into three main areas of study, that is, articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics, and perceptual or auditory phonetics. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

  4. conceptual meaning jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

    Conceptual meaning is the first type of meaning recognized by Leech, which he defined as the logic, cognitive, or denotative content. In other words, it overlaps to a large extent with the notion of reference. But Leech also uses “sense” as a briefer term for his conceptual meaning. As a result, Leech’s conceptual meaning has tow sides: sense and reference.jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

5. duality jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

    Duality refers to the structural organization of language into two abstract levels: meaning units, such as words, and meaningless elements, such as sound segments. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

  6. Phonology jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

    Phonology is the study of the sound patterns and sound systems of languages. It aims to discover the principles that govern the way sounds are organized in language, and to explain the variations that occur. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

II. Read the following statements and then tell them true or false. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

  1. T    2. F   3. T   4. T   5. T    6. F     7. F     8. T   9. F    10. T   jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

11. T   12. T     13. F    14. F    15. T    16. F    17. T    18. T    19. F     20. F  jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

III. Fill in the blanks with proper words. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

1. morpheme     2. phatic       3. Phonology   4. arbitrary    5. Recreational      6. complementary; denial    7. displacement     8. three    9. hyponyms      10. voiceless        11. pragmatics   12. competence     13. syntax         14. positional; substitutability; co-occurrence      15. gradable; complementary; converse    16. cooperative    17. Morpheme     18. constatives    19. performance   20. diachronic   21. approximants; nasals; fricatives   22. free; bound    23. allophones      24. Synonymy    25. manner    26. ideational; interpersonal; textual    27. backformation     28. bound     29. Pragmatics; sociolinguistics     jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

VI. Answer the questions. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

   1. Please explain the difference between consonants and vowels, and then try to describe the following English consonants [t], [d], [l], [h], [θ].jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     (1) The difference between consonants and vowels is whether there is obstruction of airstream in the production of speech sounds. If there is, the speech sounds produced is a consonant, and if there is not, it is a vowel. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     (2) The description of consonants involves the place and manner of articulation, and if the consonant is an obstruent, voicing has to be concerned in their description. The description of the English consonants is shown as the following: jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

        1) [t] stop, alveolar, voiceless    2) [d] stop, alveolar, voiced      3) [l] lateral, alveolar jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

        4) [h] fricative, glottal          5) [θ] fricative, dental, voicelessjrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

   2. Enumerate the design features of language.jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

 1) Arbitrariness. It indicates that the forms of linguistic signs bear no natural relationship to their meaning.jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

 2) Duality. Language have two levels of structures, such that units of the primary level are composed of element of the secondary level and each of the two levels has its own principles of organization.jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

 3) Creativity. Language is resourceful because of its duality and its recursiveness.jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

 4) Displacement. Human language enable their users to symbolize objects, events which are not present in the time of communication.jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

   3. Please compare and contrast the two terms: Cohesion and Coherence jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

 Similarity: both of them are semantic concepts concerning the connected meaning of the sentences/ utterances in a text, and both of them can define a group of sentences /utterances as a text/discourse. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

  Differences: jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

  1) Cohesion is a textual phenomenon in which the meaning connections of sentences/ utterances are realized by the cohesive devices, such as references, ellipses, substitution, conjunction, etc. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     2) Coherence is a mental phenomenon, in which the meaning connections of sentences/ utterance are achieved by human cognitive ability.jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

4. Please compare and contrast the two terms: Reference and Sense.  jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     Similarity: Both of them are the ways to explain the semantic meaning of linguistic units. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     Differences:  jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     1) The distinction between “sense” and “reference” is comparable to that between connotation and denotation in philosophy. “Sense” refers to the abstract properties of an entity, while “reference” refers to the concrete entities having these properties.  In other words, Leech’s conceptual meaning has two sides: sense and reference. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     2) Every word has a sense, i.e. some conceptual content, otherwise it cannot be used or understood; but not every word has a reference, such as the grammatical words, “if, but, and”.jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     3) The “sense” of a word may be seen as the network of its sense relations with others, that is, sense may be defined as the semantic relations between one linguistic unit and another, and it is concerned with intralinguistic relations; in contrast, reference is concerned with the relation between a word and the thing it refers to, or more generally between a linguistic unit and a non-linguistic entity it refers to. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     4) For convenience, we should study meaning in terms of sense rather than reference. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

  5. What is linguistics? Why is linguistics a branch of science? jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

    1) Linguistics is the scientific study of language. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

    2) Linguistics is a branch of science, firstly because it shares the goal of scientific enquiry, that is, objective understanding of the subject. The goal of linguistics, just like the goal of other scientific study, is to get an object understanding of the nature of language in general or languages. Secondly, linguistics is scientific in its research methodology. It employs empirical approach rather than speculative or intuitive approaches, that is, its approach includes observing data, setting up hypotheses, testing the validity of hypotheses, and accepting or rejecting hypotheses. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

6. Please specify the Cooperative Principle in detail. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

Cooperative Principle is suggested by Grice about the regularity in conversation. It includes four maxims, and they are: jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

(1) Quantity maximjrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

   1) Make your contribution as informative as is required for the current purposes of the exchange. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

   2) Do not make your contribution more informative than is required. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

(2) Quality maxim: try to make your contribution one that is true. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

   1) Do not say what you believe to be false. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

   2) Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

(3) Relation maximjrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

   Be relevant. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

(4) Manner maximjrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

   1) Avoid obscurity of expression. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

   2) Avoid ambiguity. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

   3) Be brief (avoid prolixity). jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

       4) Be orderly.jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

7. Please compare and contrast the following two terms: root and stemjrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     Similarity: When in a word, the stem is the base of the word, i.e., when there is only inflectional affix to be removed in order to find out the stem or root of the word, there is an overlap between root and stem. jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     Difficulties: jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     1) A root is the part of a word after all of the affixes are removed; jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     2) A root may be either a free morpheme or a bound morpheme; jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     3) A stem is formed when a root is combined with one or even more extra bound   morpheme;jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

     4) The simple way to identify a stem is to take it as a word form minus its inflectional affixes.jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

 jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

 jrc★济宁成人高考报名0537-2229526

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